An important question in the field of the
of life and evolution concerns the structure of the early cells. Clearly
they must have been much simpler than the modern ones, which consist of
more than 500 genes. This bears to the question of the minimal cell, the
cell having the minimal and sufficient structural complexity to display
life. The construction of such a cell (or cells) is the long goal of our
project, to be pursued with conventional liposomes, with giant vesicles
(see infra) as well as with reverse micelles(see infra).
Let us consider first the work with conventional liposomes.
Our first attempt in this direction was with lecithin liposomes, containing
the enzymes that would construct lecithin
from the inside starting from G3P, glycerol-3-phosphate (Schmidli
et al 1991). It was difficult to obtain clear results due to the fact
that the commercially available enzymes were not pure and not enough active.
Presently, this work has been taken up again by a graduate student, Paola
Luci. She is now preparing the first two enzymes (those that produce
phosphatidic acid starting from G3P) by recombinant DNA techniques. The
isolation and characterization of these enzymes, which are not well known
in the literature, has shown to be rather difficult.
In our lab, the entrapment of enzymes and nucleic acids inside liposomes,
in order to obtain microreactors for molecular biology, has progressed
over the years. Such reactions were: (i) the polynucleotide phosphorylase
(PNPase) reaction, that was able to polymerize internalized ADP into poly(A).
This was done with oleate vesicles that were simultaneously self-reproducing
et al 1994); (ii) PCR (polymerase chain reaction) taking place in POPC
et al 1995a); (iii) the Q-beta replicase reaction in liposomes
et al 1995b). The enzyme Q-beta replicase, acting upon a RNA template,
can make copies of this template in the presence of the nucleotides. Again,
this was accomplished in oleate vesicles that were self-reproducing in
the process, thus achieving a system in which both the compartment and
the RNA were multiplying themselves (although uncoupled). This is illustrated
(iv) protein biosynthesis in liposomes: work is now in progress to realize
the entire ribosomal machinery inside conventional POPC liposomes. Until
now, only a simple synthesis of a polypeptide (Poly-phe)has been obtained
using Poly(U) as the m-RNA (Oberholzer
et al 1999). We are trying to express a more complex protein, such
as the green fluorescent protein (GFP). This appears to be much more difficult.
Preliminary results have been obtained by using a novel method of encapsulation
of the biological material (Oberholzer and Luisi, in press, in Proceedings
of the XII Biophysical International Symposium in Tokyo, 2001).
This part of the molecular biology inside liposomes, as well as inside
giant vesicles – see infra - is carried out under the supervision of Dr.
This kind of work with biopolymers in conventional liposomes requires
still basic studies in the general field of enzymes in liposomes,
in particular about the transport efficiency of substrate in and out of
the lipid bilayer. Prof. Peter Walde is particularly interested in this
kind of work. Recently, he investigated together with Prof. Sosaku Ichikawa,
who worked as a postdoc in the group, proteinase-containing lipid vesicles.
The focus of the work is in the quantitative analysis of experimental kinetic
data obtained for the entrapped enzymes, focusing particularly on the substrate
permeability properties of the bilayer membranes in these enzyme-containing
nanoreactors. In an extension of the work, enzyme-containing vesicles are
also used as analytical tool to investigate vesicle-vesicle fusions caused
by the external addition of phospholipase D.
As already mentioned, the work towards the minimal cell is also pursued
with reverse micelles. In the past, we were able to incorporate DNA, and
entire ribosomes inside reverse micelles (Imre
& Luisi, 1982 ; Palazzo
& Luisi, 1992). Although reverse micelles are less interesting
as model for biological cells, they offer the advantage of a better compartimentation
of water soluble biopolymers and biomolecules. Presently, a graduate student,
Adriana Pietrini, is working in this project, and she was able to extend
the work of the incorporation of DNA and plasmids (BBA, in press).
All this work with the minimal cell is carried out in our group with
enzymes and DNA-namely we are dealing with DNA/protein minimal cells.
The case of a minimal RNA cell has been considered from a theoretical perspective
together with our collaborators in Harvard Prof. Jack Szostak and Prof.
D. Bartel (Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge), and
has brought to the perspective that a minimal self replicating cell is
possible with only two genes ribozymes (Walde,
2000), as illustrated below. However this minimal cell, even if it
could be realized (the ribozymes are not yet available) cannot produce
Mostly Dr. Thomas Oberholzer, Prof. Peter Walde, and Dr. Kenichi Morigaki
are presently working in the group with GV. This work with GV has been
in our group for many years, as it was initiated during the
dissertation work of the graduate student Roger Wick, who got his doctor
title in 1996. He worked with GV that spontaneously formed from a mixture
of oleic acid and oleate (Wick
), as well as with GV from POPC obtained by electroformation
), in collaboration with Dr. Miglena Angelova. He was
also able to inject phospholipase A2 in GV and to study the reaction of
this enzyme with the GV lipid membrane (Wick
Later on Aline Fischer, (who graduated in 2000), together with visiting
students from the University of Bologna, Alessandra Frazzoli and Andrea
Franco, mostly under the supervision of Dr. Thomas Oberholzer, were
able to give a series of additional interesting contribution to the area.
Particularly the work by Aline Fischer (Fischer
et al,2000) shed a new light on the physical properties of GV, particularly
concerning the docking and the permeability of GV towards small proteins.
In all these works, we have emphasized the differences in behaviour between
GV and conventional liposomes and made the point that GV, because of the
large curvature radius, are closer model to biological membranes.
Presently, the work with GV is progressing in the direction of using
them as model compartments for minimal cells. It has been possible to inject
the ribosome system as well as plasmid inside GV, and preliminary data
for the expression of proteins inside GV have been collected (in the example
of GFP). Reproducibility problems are however still present.